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A real-time performance requirement means a segment of the application has an absolute maximum execution time. In some applications, a more nuanced requirement exists: the average time for a particular task is constrained as well as the number of instances when some maximum time is exceeded.

Such approachessometimes called soft real-timearise when it is possible to miss the time constraint on an event occasionally, as long as not too many are missed. Real-time performance tends to be highly application-dependent. Other key characteristics in many Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA applications are the need to minimize memory and the need to use energy efficiently.

Energy efficiency is driven by both battery power and heat dissipation. The memory can be a substantial portion of the system cost, and it is important to optimize memory size in such cases.

The importance of memory size translates to an emphasis on code size, since data size is dictated by the application. Desktop Computing The first, and possibly still the largest market in dollar Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA, is desktop computing.

Since 2008, more than half of the desktop computers made each year have been battery operated laptop computers. Desktop computing sales are declining. Throughout this range in price and capability, the desktop market tends to be driven to optimize price-performance.

This combination of performance (measured primarily in terms of compute performance and graphics performance) and price of a system is what matters most to customers in this market, c b t hence to computer designers. As a result, the newest, highest-performance microprocessors and cost-reduced microprocessors often appear first in desktop systems (see Section 1.

Desktop computing also tends to be reasonably well characterized in terms of applications and benchmarking, though the increasing use of web-centric, interactive applications ovar io new challenges in performance evaluation. Servers As the shift to desktop computing occurred in the 1980s, the role of servers grew to provide larger-scale and more reliable file and computing services. Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA servers have become the backbone of large-scale enterprise computing, replacing the traditional mainframe.

Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA servers, different characteristics are important. First, availability is critical. Failure of such server systems is far more catastrophic than failure of a Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA desktop, since these servers must operate seven days a week, 24 hours a day.

These data are from Landstrom (2014) and were collected and analyzed by Contingency Planning Research. A second key feature of server systems is scalability. Finally, servers are designed for efficient Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA. That is, the overall performance of the serverin terms of transactions per minute or web pages served per secondis what is crucial.

Responsiveness to an individual request remains important, but overall efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as determined by how many requests can be handled in a unit time, are the key metrics for most servers. We return to the issue of assessing performance Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA different types of computing environments in Section 1. Clusters are collections of desktop computers or servers connected by local area networks to act as a single larger computer.

Each node runs its own operating system, and nodes communicate using a networking protocol. WSCs are the largest of the clusters, in that they are designed so that tens of thousands of servers can act as one.

Chapter 6 describes this class of extremely large computers. Price-performance and power are critical to WSCs since they are so large. As Chapter 6 explains, the majority of the cost of a warehouse is associated with power and cooling of sodium thiosulfate computers inside the warehouse.

WSCs are related to servers in that availability is critical. During a peak hour for Christmas shopping, the potential loss would be many times higher. As Chapter 6 explains, the difference Metformin Hcl (Riomet)- FDA WSCs and servers is that WSCs use redundant, inexpensive components as the building blocks, relying on a software layer to catch and isolate the many failures that will happen with computing at this scale to deliver the availability needed for such applications.

Note that scalability for a WSC is handled by the local area network connecting the computers and not by integrated computer hardware, as in the case of servers.

Supercomputers are related to WSCs in that they are equally expensive, costing hundreds of millions of dollars, but supercomputers differ by emphasizing floating-point performance and by running large, communication-intensive batch programs that can run for weeks at a time.

In contrast, WSCs emphasize interactive applications, large-scale storage, dependability, and high Internet bandwidth. Classes of Parallelism and Parallel Architectures Parallelism at multiple levels is now the driving force of computer design across all four classes of computers, with energy and cost being the primary constraints.

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