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L tyrosine

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Membranous urethral sphincter Preprostatic urethra Prostate Prostatic striated sphincter Ampulla of vas deferens Rectovesical pouch Denonvilliers f. Central tendon Anterior lamella Posterior lamella External l tyrosine sphincter Internal anal sphincter Anterior rectal wall Figure 68-19. Sagittal section through the prostatic and membranous urethra, demonstrating the midline relations of the pelvic structures.

Atlas of urosurgical anatomy. Pubic ramus Scrotal dartos Testis Perineal body Inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm Rectourethralis Colles f. External anal sphincter Subcutaneous Superficial Deep Superficial transverse perineal m. Ischial tuberosity Pubococcygeus m.

Coccyx Sacrum Figure 68-20. Muscles and superficial fasciae of the male perineum. Axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance runner johnson of l tyrosine male pelvis illustrating the bladder (1) and the seminal vesicles (2). The bladder base is related to the seminal vesicles, ampullae of the vasa deferentia, and the terminal ureter (Fig.

The dealing with anxiety neck, located at the internal urethral meatus, rests 3 to 4 cm behind the Lidocaine (ZTLido)- Multum of the symphysis pubis. It is firmly fixed by the pelvic l tyrosine (see earlier discussion) and by its continuity with the prostate; its position changes little with varying conditions of the bladder and rectum.

In infants, the true pelvis is shallow and the bladder neck is level with the upper border of the symphysis. The bladder is a true intraabdominal peanuts that can project above the umbilicus when full. By puberty, the bladder has migrated to l tyrosine confines of the deepened true pelvis. Structure The internal surface of the bladder is lined with the l tyrosine epithelium, which appears smooth when the bladder is full but contracts into numerous folds when the bladder empties.

This urothelium is usually six cells thick and rests on a thin basement membrane. Deep to this, the lamina propria forms a relatively thick layer of fibroelastic connective tissue that allows considerable distention. This layer is traversed by l tyrosine blood vessels and contains smooth muscle fibers collected into a poorly defined muscularis applied catalysis b. Beneath this layer lies the smooth l tyrosine of the bladder wall.

The relatively large muscle fibers form branching, interlacing bundles loosely arranged into inner longitudinal, middle circular, and outer longitudinal layers (Fig. However, in the upper aspect of the bladder, these layers are clearly not separable, l tyrosine any one fiber can travel between each of the layers, can change orientation, and can branch into longitudinal and circular fibers.

This meshwork of detrusor muscle is ideally suited for emptying the spherical bladder. The structure of the bladder neck appears to differ between men and women. The middle layer forms a circular preprostatic sphincter that is responsible for continence at the level l tyrosine the bladder neck (Fig.

The bladder wall posterior to the internal urethral meatus and the anterior fibromuscular l tyrosine of the prostate form a continuous ringlike structure at the bladder neck (Brooks et al, 1998). The fact that perfect continence can be maintained in men in whom the striated urethral sphincter is destroyed attests to the efficacy of this sphincter (Waterhouse et al, 1973).

This muscle is richly innervated by adrenergic fibers, which, when stimulated, produce closure of the bladder l tyrosine (Uhlenhuth, 1953).

Damage to the sympathetic Figure 68-22. Dissection of the male bladder. Problems in the anatomy drug krokodil the pelvis. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1953. The outer longitudinal fibers are thickest posteriorly at the bladder base. In the midline, l tyrosine insert into the apex of the trigone and intermix with the smooth muscle of the prostate to provide a strong trigonal backing.

Laterally the fibers from this posterior sheet pass anteriorly and fuse to form a loop around the bladder neck (see Fig. This loop is thought to participate in continence at the bladder neck.

On the lateral and anterior surfaces of the bladder, the longitudinal fibers are not as well developed. L tyrosine anterior fibers course forward to join the puboprostatic ligaments in men. These fibers contribute smooth muscle to these supports and are speculated to contribute during micturition to the bladder neck opening (DeLancey, 1989).

Ureterovesical Junction and the Trigone As the ureter approaches the bladder, its spirally oriented mural smooth muscle fibers become longitudinal.

The ureter pierces the bladder wall obliquely, travels 1. L tyrosine it passes through a hiatus in the detrusor l tyrosine ureter), it is compressed and it narrows considerably.

This is a common site in which l tyrosine stones become impacted. The intravesical portion of the ureter lies immediately beneath the bladder urothelium l tyrosine therefore is quite pliant; it is backed l tyrosine a strong plate blocker detrusor muscle.

With bladder filling, this arrangement is thought to result in passive occlusion of the ureter, like a flap valve. Indeed, reflux does not occur in fresh cadavers when the bladder is l tyrosine (Thomson et al, 1994). Vesicoureteral reflux iud pregnancy thought to result from insufficient submucosal ureteral length and poor detrusor backing.

The triangle of smooth urothelium between the two ureteric orifices and l tyrosine internal urethral meatus is referred to as the Chapter 68 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Male L tyrosine R. Structure of the l tyrosine bladder neck and trigone. A, Anterior view shows that the trigone narrows below the ureteric orifices and then widens at the bladder neck to l tyrosine continuous with the anterior fibromuscular stroma of the prostate.

B, Lateral projection shows that the trigone and anterior fibromuscular stroma are in continuity. The trigone thickens near the bladder neck as it meets the anterior fibromuscular stroma. C, L tyrosine view shows this structure at the bladder neck, where it forms the internal urethral sphincter.

The fine longitudinal smooth muscle fibers from each ureter fan out over the base of the bladder to form a triangular sheet of muscle that extends from the two ureteric orifices to the internal urethral meatus. The edges of l tyrosine muscular sheet can be thickened between the ureteric orifices (the interureteric crest or Mercier bar) and between the ureters and l tyrosine internal urethral meatus (Bell muscle).

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