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If the instruction is not found in the L3 cache, the on-chip memory controller must get the block from main memory. The i7 has three 64-bit memory channels that can act as one 192-bit channel, because there is only one memory controller and the same address is sent on both channels (step 14).

Wide transfers happen when both channels have identical DIMMs. Each channel supports up to four DDR DIMMs (step 15). When the data return they are placed into L3 and L1 (step 16) because L3 is inclusive. The total latency of the instruction miss that is serviced by main j alloys compounds is approximately 42 processor cycles to determine that an L3 miss has occurred, plus the DRAM latency for j alloys compounds critical instructions. For a single-bank DDR4-2400 SDRAM and 4.

Because the second-level cache is a write-back cache, any miss can lead to an old block being written back to memory. The i7 has a 10-entry merging write buffer that j alloys compounds back dirty cache lines when the next level in the cache is unused for a read.

The write buffer is checked on a miss to see if the cache line exists in the buffer; if so, the miss is filled from the buffer. A similar buffer is used between the L1 and Imol caches. If this initial instruction is a load, the data address is sent to the data cache and data TLBs, acting very much like an instruction cache access.

Suppose the instruction is a store instead of a load. When the store issues, it does a data cache lookup just like a load. A j alloys compounds causes the block to be placed in a write buffer because j alloys compounds L1 cache does not allocate the block on a write miss.

On a hit, the store does not update the L1 (or L2) cache until later, after it is known extract green tea be nonspeculative. J alloys compounds this time, the store resides in unisim load-store queue, part of the out-of-order control j alloys compounds of the processor.

The I7 also supports prefetching for L1 and L2 from the next j alloys compounds in the hierarchy. In most cases, the prefetched line is simply the next block in the cache. By prefetching only for L1 and L2, high-cost unnecessary fetches to memory are avoided. The data in internal section were collected by Professor Lu Peng and PhD student Qun Liu, both of Louisiana State University.

Their analysis is based on earlier work (see Prakash and Peng, 2008). The complexity of the i7 pipeline, with its use of an autonomous instruction fetch unit, speculation, and both instruction and data prefetch, makes it hard to compare cache performance against simpler processors. As mentioned on page 110, processors that use prefetch can generate cache accesses independent of the memory accesses performed by the program.

A cache access that is generated because of an actual instruction access or data access is sometimes called a demand access to distinguish it from a prefetch access. Demand accesses can come from both speculative instruction fetches and speculative data accesses, some of which are subsequently canceled (see Chapter 3 for a detailed description of speculation and instruction graduation). A speculative processor generates at least as many misses as an in-order nonspeculative processor, and typically more.

In addition to demand misses, there are prefetch misses for both instructions and data. In fact, the entire 64-byte cache line is read and subsequent 16-byte fetches do not require additional accesses. Thus misses are tracked only on the basis of 64-byte blocks.



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