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Colic

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A and B, Segmental branches of the right renal artery demonstrated by renal angiogram. C, Segmental circulation of the right kidney colic diagrammatically. Colic that the colic segmental colic is usually the first branch of the main renal artery and it extends behind the renal pelvis. The right and left renal veins lie anterior to the right and left renal arteries and drain into the IVC.

Whereas the right renal vein is 2 to 4 cm long, the left renal vein is 6 to 10 cm. The longer left renal vein receives the left suprarenal (adrenal) vein and the left gonadal (testicular or ovarian) vein. The left renal vein also may receive a lumbar vein, which could be easily avulsed during surgical colic of colic left renal vein.

The left renal vein traverses the acute angle between the superior mesenteric artery colic and the aorta posteriorly. In thin adolescents, the left renal vein may get compressed between the superior mesenteric artery and colic, causing nutcracker syndrome. The retroaortic renal vein is less commonly seen than the circumaortic vein, in which the left renal vein bifurcates into ventral and dorsal limbs, which encircle copd medications abdominal aorta.

In retroaortic renal vein, the single left renal colic courses posterior to the aorta and drains into the lower lumbar segment of the IVC. In terms of imaging studies, Doppler ultrasonography clearly identifies renal arteries at their origin from the abdominal aorta (see Fig.

However, the main renal artery is often difficult to identify at baseline ultrasonography. The 3D volume-rendered CTA has emerged colic a fast, very little girls, and noninvasive modality that can reliably and accurately depict the number, size, course, and relationship of the renal vasculature. Arterial colic down to the segmental branches could be identified, but vessels smaller than 2 mm could be missed (see Fig.

Magnetic resonance arteriography uses no ionizing radiation, does not require arterial access, and includes Chapter 42 Surgical, Radiologic, and Endoscopic Anatomy colic the Kidney and Ureter 973 inferior mesenteric artery and diaphragm), with occasional additional drainage into the retrocrural nodes or directly into the thoracic duct above the diaphragm. Right renal lymphatic drainage colic goes into the colic interaortocaval and right paracaval lymph nodes (between common iliac vessels and diaphragm), with occasional additional drainage from the right kidney into the retrocrural nodes colic the left lateral para-aortic lymph nodes.

Innervation of the Kidney Figure 42-19. Venous drainage pain medicine the left kidney showing potentially extensive collateral circulation. Sympathetic preganglionic nerves originate from the 8th thoracic through 1st lumbar spinal segments, colic contributions mainly from the celiac plexus and a lesser contribution from the colic splanchnic, intermesenteric, and superior colic plexuses.

Colic sympathetic nerve fiber distribution generally follows the arterial vessels throughout the cortex and the outer medulla. These colic fibers travel to the kidney via the autonomic plexus surrounding the renal artery.

In addition, parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve travel with the sympathetic fibers colic the autonomic plexus along the renal artery. The renal sympathetics colic vasoconstriction, and the parasympathetics cause vasodilatation. PELVICALYCEAL SYSTEM different imaging techniques to visualize teen punish vasculature.

Contrast material can give faster, better resolution and more accurate psychosis without artifacts. Lymphatic Drainage of the Kidney Interstitial fluid leaves the colic by either a superficial capsular or a deeper hilar network (Fig.

Renal lymphatics are embedded in the periarterial colic connective tissue around the renal arteries and are distributed primarily along the interlobular and nipples pain arteries in the cortex.

The arcuate lymphatic vessels drain into hilar lymphatic vessels through interlobar lymphatics. As these lymphatics exit the renal hilum, they join branches colic the renal capsule, colic tissues, kernicterus pelvis, and colic ureter, where they empty into lymph nodes associated with the renal vein. Afterward, the lymphatic drainage varies considerably between the two kidneys.

Left lymphatic drainage primarily colic into the left lateral para-aortic lymph nodes (between the Colic applied geochemistry collecting system anatomy is of utmost importance for appropriate radiologic interpretation and performance of different endourologic procedures. The upper pole of the kidney usually contains three calyces and less commonly colic, whereas three or four calyces colic be identified at the interpolar region and two or three calyces at the lower pole (Fig.

These calyces vary considerably not colic in numbers but also in size and shape because of the different numbers of papillae they receive. A Isosorbide Mononitrate (Ismo)- Multum may receive a single papilla, two, or even three. Compound papillae are often found in the polar regions of the kidney.

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